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Daniel Strecker's Blog - daniel-strecker.com
published: 2022-05-25
last change: 2022-06-10

Mathematical Symbols


This is a list of mathematical unicode symbols that I sometimes use for typing equations. It's nice to have them in unicode, so you can easily copy-paste them into emails or forum posts if there is no formatting language available like HTML or markdown. And even if there is, it can be more convenient to just copy-paste these symbols.


∊∍∈∋∉∌ (or ϵ϶, epsilon) element of
ℕ natural numbers
ℕ₀ natural numbers with zero, natural numbers with 0
ℤ set of integer numbers, whole numbers
ℚ set of rational numbers, quotients
ℝ set of real numbers
ℂ set of complex numbers
Ø empty set
𝕆 = 2ℕ₀+1 nonstandard, odd integer numbers
𝔼 = 2ℕ₀ nonstandard, even integer numbers, including 0
∪ union (set theory)
∩ intersection (set theory)
⊂⊊⊆⊇⊋⊃ subset, sub set, superset, super set
≈ almost equal, about equal, approximately, approx.
∑ sigma, sum
𝚷 capital letter pi, bold, product
Π capital letter pi, normal
π small letter pi, normal
≡ congruent, congruency
∎ end of proof, quod erat demonstrandum, qed, q.e.d.
∃∄ there exists, there is no, there doesn't exist
∀ for all
⇒⇐ implies, implication
⇔ equivalent, equivalence
⇝⇜ squiggle arrow
↝↜ wave arrow
⟿⬳ long squiggle arrow
↷ clockwise top semicircle arrow
⤓downwards arrow
←→ standard arrows
⇨⇦ white arrows
➜➝➞ more right arrows
⁰¹²³⁴⁵⁶⁷⁸⁹ ᵃᵇᶜᵈᵉᶠᵍʰⁱʲᵏˡᵐⁿᵒᵖ𐞥ʳˢᵗᵘᵛʷˣʸᶻ ⁺⁻⁼⁽⁾ ᵅᵝᵞᵟᵋᶿᶥᶲᵠᵡ ᴬ ᴭ ᴮ ᴯ ᴰ ᴱ ᴲ ᴳ ᴴ ᵸ ᴵ ᴶ ᴷ ᴸ ᴹ ᴺ ᴻ ᴼ ᴽ ᴾ ᴿ ᵀ ᵁ ⱽ ᵂ ᶿ superscripts
₀₁₂₃₄₅₆₇₈₉ ₐₑₕᵢⱼₖₗₘₙₒₚᵣₛₜᵤᵥₓₔ ₊₋₌₍₎ ᵦᵧᵨᵩᵪ subscripts
Əə capital and small normal size letter of subscript schwa ₔ
Ə̄ə̄ capital and small special schwa letters with macron, the schwa-macrons
ұҰ (short U in Kazakh language Cyrillic script); nonstandard, but a nice symbol for "coalesces with" for sequences that join
∣∤, divides, does not divide, divisible, divisibility
± plus minus, plusminus
∓ minus plus, minusplus
- minus, dash
− wider minus
- full width minus
﹣small minus
∧ logical and
∨ logical inclusive or
⊻ logical exclusive or
¬ logical not, logical negation
=≠ equal, equals, unequal, unequals, not equal, doesn't equal
⊥ undefined, not defined, up tack, falsum, absurdum
≤ less than or equal
≥ greater than or equal
⌊⌋ floor
⌈⌉ ceil
∘ function composition
⏞ top curly bracket
⏟ bottom curly bracket
⎲ sigma summation top
⎳ sigma summation bottom
∞ infinity, infinite

standard alphabet
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

mathematical fraktur alphabet
𝔄𝔅ℭ𝔇𝔈𝔉𝔊ℌℑ𝔍𝔎𝔏𝔐𝔑𝔒𝔓𝔔ℜ𝔖𝔗𝔘𝔙𝔚𝔛𝔜ℨ
𝔞𝔟𝔠𝔡𝔢𝔣𝔤𝔥𝔦𝔧𝔨𝔩𝔪𝔫𝔬𝔭𝔮𝔯𝔰𝔱𝔲𝔳𝔴𝔵𝔶𝔷

mathematical fraktur bold alphabet
𝕬𝕭𝕮𝕯𝕰𝕱𝕲𝕳𝕴𝕵𝕶𝕷𝕸𝕹𝕺𝕻𝕼𝕽𝕾𝕿𝖀𝖁𝖂𝖃𝖄𝖅
𝖆𝖇𝖈𝖉𝖊𝖋𝖌𝖍𝖎𝖏𝖐𝖑𝖒𝖓𝖔𝖕𝖖𝖗𝖘𝖙𝖚𝖛𝖜𝖝𝖞𝖟

mathematical script alphabet
𝒜𝒝𝒞𝒟𝒢𝒥𝒦𝒩𝒪𝒫𝒬𝒮𝒯𝒰𝒱𝒲𝒳𝒴𝒵 (incomplete)
𝒶𝒷𝒸𝒹𝒻𝒽𝒾𝒿𝓀𝓁𝓂𝓃𝓅𝓆𝓇𝓈𝓉𝓊𝓋𝓌𝓍𝓎𝓏 (incomplete)
ℬℰℱℋℐℒℳℛ

mathematical script bold alphabet
𝓐𝓑𝓒𝓓𝓔𝓕𝓖𝓗𝓘𝓙𝓚𝓛𝓜𝓝𝓞𝓟𝓠𝓡𝓢𝓣𝓤𝓥𝓦𝓧𝓨𝓩
𝓪𝓫𝓬𝓭𝓮𝓯𝓰𝓱𝓲𝓳𝓴𝓵𝓶𝓷𝓸𝓹𝓺𝓻𝓼𝓽𝓾𝓿𝔀𝔁𝔂𝔃

double struck alphabet
𝔸𝔹ℂ𝔻𝔼𝔽𝔾ℍ𝕀𝕁𝕂𝕃𝕄ℕ𝕆ℙℚℝ𝕊𝕋𝕌𝕍𝕎𝕏𝕐ℤ
𝕒𝕓𝕔𝕕𝕖𝕗𝕘𝕙𝕚𝕛𝕜𝕝𝕞𝕟𝕠𝕡𝕢𝕣𝕤𝕥𝕦𝕧𝕨𝕩𝕪𝕫
𝟘𝟙𝟚𝟛𝟜𝟝𝟞𝟟𝟠𝟡

bold alphabet
𝐀𝐁𝐂𝐃𝐄𝐅𝐆𝐇𝐈𝐉𝐊𝐋𝐌𝐍𝐎𝐏𝐐𝐑𝐒𝐓𝐔𝐕𝐖𝐗𝐘𝐙
𝐚𝐛𝐜𝐝𝐞𝐟𝐠𝐡𝐢𝐣𝐤𝐥𝐦𝐧𝐨𝐩𝐪𝐫𝐬𝐭𝐮𝐯𝐰𝐱𝐲𝐳
𝟎𝟏𝟐𝟑𝟒𝟓𝟔𝟕𝟖𝟗

greek alphabet
Αα alpha
Ββ beta
Γγ gamma
Δδ delta
Εε epsilon
Ϝϝ digamma
Ζζ zeta
Ηη eta
Θθ theta
Ιι iota
Κκ kappa
Λλ lambda
Μμ mu
Νν nu
Ξξ xi
Οο omicron
Ππ pi
Ρρ rho
Σσς sigma
Ττ tau
ϒυ upsilon
Φφ phi
Χχ chi
Ψψ psi
Ωω omega
∇ nabla

all greek letters pi
Πᴨℿ𝚷𝛱𝜫𝝥𝞟
πℼ𝛑𝜋𝝅𝝿𝞹

italic greek alphabet
𝛢𝛣𝛤𝛥𝛦𝛧𝛨𝛩𝛪𝛫𝛬𝛭𝛮𝛯𝛰𝛱𝛲𝛳𝛴𝛵𝛶𝛷𝛸𝛹𝛺Ϝ
𝛼𝛽𝛾𝛿𝜀𝜁𝜂𝜃𝜄𝜅𝜆𝜇𝜈𝜉𝜊𝜋𝜌𝜍𝜎𝜏𝜐𝜑𝜒𝜓𝜔ϝ
𝛻

bold greek alphabet
𝚨𝚩𝚪𝚫𝚬𝚭𝚮𝚯𝚰𝚱𝚲𝚳𝚴𝚵𝚶𝚷𝚸𝚹𝚺𝚻𝚼𝚽𝚾𝚿𝛀𝟊
𝛂𝛃𝛄𝛅𝛆𝛇𝛈𝛉𝛊𝛋𝛌𝛍𝛎𝛏𝛐𝛑𝛒𝛓𝛔𝛕𝛖𝛗𝛘𝛙𝛚𝟋
𝛁

ṠṢṨ
🆂