home     blog     about     contact
Daniel Strecker's Blog - daniel-strecker.com
published: 2022-05-25
last change: 2022-09-02

Mathematical Symbols

This is a list of mathematical unicode symbols handy for typing equations. It's nice to have them in unicode, so you can easily copy-paste them into emails or forum posts if there is no formatting language available like HTML or markdown. And even if there is, it can be more convenient to just copy-paste these symbols.

∈∋∉∌∊∍ (or ϵ϶, epsilon) element of
∃∄ there exists, there is no, there doesn't exist
∀ for all
⇒⇐ implies, implication
⇔ equivalent, equivalence
⤂ leftwards double arrow with vertical stroke
⤃ rightwards double arrow with vertical stroke
⤄ left right double arrow with vertical stroke
= equal, equals
≠ unequal, unequals, different from, not equal, don't equal, doesn't equal
≈ almost equal, about equal, approximately, approx.
≤ less than or equal
≥ greater than or equal
ℕ natural numbers
ℕ₀ natural numbers with zero, natural numbers with 0
ℤ set of integer numbers, whole numbers
ℚ set of rational numbers, quotients
ℝ set of real numbers
ℂ set of complex numbers
Ø empty set
𝕆 = 2ℕ₀+1 nonstandard, odd integer numbers
𝔼 = 2ℕ₀ nonstandard, even integer numbers, including 0
∪ union (set theory)
∩ intersection (set theory)
⊂⊆⊇⊃ subset of, sub set of, superset of, super set of
⊄⊊⊈⊉⊋⊅ not subset of, not sub set of, not superset of, not super set of
ᵃᵇᶜᵈᵉᶠᵍʰⁱʲᵏˡᵐⁿᵒᵖ𐞥ʳˢᵗᵘᵛʷˣʸᶻ ⁺⁻⁼⁽⁾ ⁰¹²³⁴⁵⁶⁷⁸⁹ ᵅᵝᵞᵟᵋᶿᶥᶲᵠᵡ ᴬ ᴭ ᴮ ᴯ ᴰ ᴱ ᴲ ᴳ ᴴ ᵸ ᴵ ᴶ ᴷ ᴸ ᴹ ᴺ ᴻ ᴼ ᴽ ᴾ ᴿ ᵀ ᵁ ⱽ ᵂ ᶿ ᐜ ᐝ ᐞ ᐟ ᐠ ᐡ ᐢ ᐣ ᐤ ᐥ ᐦ ᐧ ᐨ ᐩ ᐪ ᑉ ᑊ ᑋ ᒃ ᒄ ᒡ ᒢ ᒻ ᒼ ᒽ ᒾ ᓐ ᓑ ᓒ ᓪ ᓫ ᔅ ᔆ ᔇ ᔈ ᔉ ᔊ ᔋ ᔥ ᔾ ᔿ ᕀ ᕁ ᕐ ᕑ ᕝ ᕪ ᕻ ᕯ ᕽ ᖅ ᖕ ᖖ ᖟ ᖦ ᖮ ᗮ ᘁ ᙆ ᙇ ᙚ ᙾ ᙿ ᣔ ᣕ ᣖ ᣗ ᣘ ᣙ ᣚ ᣛ ᣜ ᣝ ᣞ ᣟ ᣳ ᣴ ᣵ superscripts
ₐₑₕᵢⱼₖₗₘₙₒₚᵣₛₜᵤᵥₓₔ ₊₋₌₍₎ ₀₁₂₃₄₅₆₇₈₉ ᵦᵧᵨᵩᵪ subscripts
∑ sigma, sum
𝚷 capital letter pi, bold, product
Π capital letter pi, normal
π small letter pi, normal
≡ congruent, congruency
∎ end of proof, quod erat demonstrandum, qed, q.e.d.
⟸ long leftwards double arrow
⟹ long rightwards double arrow
⟺ long left right double arrow
⟽ long leftwards double arrow from bar
⟾ long rightwards double arrow from bar
⤆ leftwards double arrow from bar
⤇ rightwards double arrow from bar
⇝⇜ squiggle arrow
↝↜ wave arrow
⟿⬳ long squiggle arrow
↷ clockwise top semicircle arrow
⤓downwards arrow
←→ standard arrows
⇨⇦ white arrows
➜➝➞ more right arrows
Əə capital and small normal size letter of subscript schwa ₔ
Ə̄ə̄ capital and small special schwa letters with macron, the schwa-macrons
ұҰ (short U in Kazakh language Cyrillic script); nonstandard, but a nice symbol for "coalesces with" for sequences that join
∣∤, divides, does not divide, divisible, divisibility
± plus minus, plusminus
∓ minus plus, minusplus
- minus, dash
− wider minus (as wide as +)
- full width minus
﹣small minus
· middle dot, multiplication dot, product, multiply
∧ logical and
∨ logical inclusive or
⊻ logical exclusive or
¬ logical not, logical negation
⊥ undefined, not defined, up tack, falsum, absurdum
⌊⌋ floor
⌈⌉ ceil
⁅⁆ rounding brackets (non-standard); quilled brackets; officially: square brackets with quill
∘ function composition
° degree
⏞ top curly bracket
⏟ bottom curly bracket
⎲ sigma summation top
⎳ sigma summation bottom
∞ infinity, infinite
√ root, square root

standard alphabet

mathematical fraktur alphabet

mathematical fraktur bold alphabet

mathematical script alphabet
𝒜ℬ𝒞𝒟ℰℱ𝒢ℋℐ𝒥𝒦ℒℳ𝒩𝒪𝒫𝒬ℛ𝒮𝒯𝒰𝒱𝒲𝒳𝒴𝒵 (completion of 2 incomplete character sets)
ℬℰℱℋℐℒℳℛ (incomplete)
𝒶𝒷𝒸𝒹𝒻𝒽𝒾𝒿𝓀𝓁𝓂𝓃𝓅𝓆𝓇𝓈𝓉𝓊𝓋𝓌𝓍𝓎𝓏 (incomplete)

mathematical script bold alphabet

double struck alphabet

bold alphabet

greek alphabet
Αα alpha
Ββ beta
Γγ gamma
Δδ delta
Εε epsilon
Ϝϝ digamma
Ζζ zeta
Ηη eta
Θθ theta
Ιι iota
Κκ kappa
Λλ lambda
Μμ mu
Νν nu
Ξξ xi
Οο omicron
Ππ pi
Ρρ rho
Σσς sigma
Ττ tau
ϒυ upsilon
Φφ phi
Χχ chi
Ψψ psi
Ωω omega
∇ nabla
Ϟϟ greek koppa
Ͷͷ pamphylian digamma
Ͳͳ sampi (archaic)
Ϙϙ koppa (archaic)
Ͱͱ heta (archaic)

all greek letters pi

italic greek alphabet

bold greek alphabet